Researchers from North Carolina State University and the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed numerical “tweezers” that can pin a nucleus in place, enabling them to study how interactions between protons and neutrons produce forces between nuclei. They found that the strength of local interactions determines whether or not these nuclei attract or repel each other, shedding light on the parameters that control attraction or repulsion in quantum bound states.
“Ultimately we want to understand how nuclear forces determine nuclear structure by studying how nuclei attract or repel one another,” says Dean Lee, professor of physics at NC State and corresponding author of a paper describing the work. “So we needed a way to hold particles in place and move them around relative to one another in order to measure attraction or repulsion.”
The full press release can be found here.
“Effective Forces Between Quantum Bound States”
Authors: Alexander Rokash, Evgeny Epelbaum and Hermann Krebs, Institut fur Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany; Dean Lee, North Carolina State University
Published: June 9, 2017, Physical Review Letters
Abstract: Recent ab initio lattice studies have found that the interactions between alpha particles (4He nuclei) are sensitive to seemingly minor details of the nucleon-nucleon force such as interaction locality. In order to uncover the essential physics of this puzzling phenomenon without unnecessary complications, we study a simple model involving two-component fermions in one spatial dimension. We probe the interaction between two bound dimers for several different particle-particle interactions and measure an effective potential between the dimers using external point potentials which act as numerical tweezers. We find that the strength and range of the local part of the particle-particle interactions play a dominant role in shaping the interactions between the dimers and can even determine the overall sign of the effective potential.
Scientists at NC State have developed a new method to control light. To do this, they use electric fields to change the refractive index of materials. Researchers investigated thin films of semiconductor materials: molybdenum sulfide, tungsten sulfide and tungsten selenide. In some of these materials, the refractive index was changed by as much as 60 percent.
A press release can be found here.
“Giant Gating Tunability of Optical Refractive Index in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers”
Authors: Yiling Yu, Yifei Yu, Lujun Huang and Linyou Cao, North Carolina State University; Haowei Peng, Temple University; and Liwei Xiong, Wuhan Institute of Technology
Published: May 15, 2017, Nano Letters
Abstract: We report that the refractive index of transition metal dichacolgenide (TMDC) monolayers, such as MoS2, WS2, and WSe2, can be substantially tuned by > 60% in the imaginary part and > 20% in the real part around exciton resonances using CMOS-compatible electrical gating. This giant tunablility is rooted in the dominance of excitonic effects in the refractive index of the monolayers and the strong susceptibility of the excitons to the influence of injected charge carriers. The tunability mainly results from the effects of injected charge carriers to broaden the spectral width of excitonic interband transitions and to facilitate the interconversion of neutral and charged excitons. The other effects of the injected charge carriers, such as renormalizing bandgap and changing exciton binding energy, only play negligible roles. We also demonstrate that the atomically thin monolayers, when combined with photonic structures, can enable the efficiencies of optical absorption (reflection) tuned from 40% (60%) to 80% (20%) due to the giant tunability of refractive index. This work may pave the way towards the development of field-effect photonics in which the optical functionality can be controlled with CMOS circuits.
Researchers at NC State were able to deposit an ultra-thin oxide ferroelectric film onto a flexible polymer substrate for the first time. The team uses the flexible films to make non-volatile memory devices that are wearable and resilient. Ferroelectric materials can store charge, which is an ideal property for non-volatile memory devices. However, ferroelectric materials tend to be brittle and are typically made at high temperatures, which would destroy most polymers. Researchers were able to grow an extremely thin film of hafnia (20-50 nm) onto plastic substrates at low temperatures. The resulting prototype remained stable and flexible during testing and can be used in numerous applications from defense to space.
A press release can be found here.
“Flexible Inorganic Ferroelectric Thin Films for Non-Volatile Memory Devices”
Authors: Hyeonggeun Yu, Ching-Chang Chung, Nate Shewmon, Szuheng Ho, Joshua H. Carpenter, Ryan Larrabee, Tianlei Sun, Jacob L. Jones, Harald Ade, Brendan T. O’Connor, and Franky So, North Carolina State University
Published: April 12, 2017 in Advanced Functional Materials
Abstract: Next-generation wearable electronics calls for flexible non-volatile devices for ubiquitous data storage. Thus far, only organic ferroelectric materials have shown intrinsic flexibility and processibility on plastic substrates. Here, we discovered that by controlling the heating rate, ferroelectric hafnia films can be grown on plastic substrates. The resulting highly flexible capacitor with a film thickness of 30 nm yielded a remnant polarization of 10 μC cm-2. Bending test shows that the film ferroelectricity can be retained under a bending radius below 8 mm with bending cycle up to 1,000 times. The excellent flexibility is due to the extremely thin hafnia film thickness. Using the ferroelectric film as a gate insulator, a low voltage non-volatile vertical organic transistor was demonstrated on a plastic substrate with an extrapolated date retention time up to 10 years.
The Chapel Hill Analytical and Nanofabrication Laboratory (CHANL) is hosting its 9th annual Scientific Art Competition! The Scientific Art Competition provides an opportunity to showcase scientific data with artistic appeal. The deadline for submission is March 31, 2017. Submissions should be sent to Dr. Amar Kumbhar (firstname.lastname@example.org) along with a submission form. Anyone can submit to the CHANL scientific art competition, and the work does not need to be produced on CHANL equipment.
This year there will be twelve CASH prizes!
1) Artist’s Choice: 1st Place: $ 50.00, and 3 finalists: $20.00 each
2) People’s Choice: 1st Place: $ 50.00, and 3 finalists: $20.00 each
3) Students’ Choice: 1st Place: $ 50.00, and 3 finalists: $20.00 each
Winners will be announced the week of April 23 at a lunch reception and the CHANL MRS seminar.
Please contact email@example.com with questions or concerns.
“Science Outside the Lab” brings a small cohort of graduate student scientists and engineers to Washington, D.C. to explore the relationships among science, innovation, policy, and societal outcomes. This customized free one week version (June 4-10, 2017), sponsored by the Nanotechnology Collaborative Infrastructure Southwest (NCI-SW), will investigate the context of nanotechnology decision-making in government and business at the local, state, federal, and international levels. During the week-long workshop participants meet and interact with groups of people who fund, regulate, shape, critique, publicize, and study nanotechnology and other emerging technologies. This includes people like congressional staffers, lobbyists, funding agency officers, regulators, journalists, academics, museum curators, and others.
To apply to the program, complete this application and email as an attachment to CENTSS@asu.edu or fax to (480-727-8791). Application deadline: March 10, 2017. For more information, please contact Andra Williams at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Researchers at Duke University recently published a paper in Advanced Materials describing the development of a technique to detect light across the electromagnetic spectrum. As opposed to using materials that absorb specific wavelengths of light, silver nanocube structures trap different types of light. This can be controlled by changing the size and arrangement of the nanocubes. To learn more see the Duke press release or read the article.
“Toward Multispectral Imaging with Colloidal Metasurface Pixels“
Jon W. Stewart, Gleb M. Akselrod, David R. Smith, and Maiken H. Mikkelsen
Abstract: Multispectral colloidal metasurfaces are fabricated that exhibit greater than 85% absorption and ≈100 nm linewidths by patterning film-coupled nanocubes in pixels using a fusion of bottom-up and top-down fabrication techniques over wafer-scale areas. With this technique, the authors realize a multispectral pixel array consisting of six resonances between 580 and 1125 nm and reconstruct an RGB image with 9261 color combinations.
Images captured using electron microscopes housed in RTNN’s Shared Materials Instrumentation Facility (SMIF) at Duke are featured in a recent Duke News article. Read the whole story here and see amazing images of horseflies and weevils at 300,000x magnification.
Led by RTNN director Dr. Jacob Jones, a team of researchers from NC State, UNC-CH, Duke, and RTI has been announced as a GRIP (Game-Changing Research Initiative Program) awardee for their project “Water Sustainability through Nanotechnology: Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Solid-Water Interface.” Water is a fundamental requirement for life. However, universal access to clean water has become a crisis facing society, evidenced by continuing droughts and contaminated water supplies in major population centers. There is an emergent need for innovative, sustainable technologies to improve and maintain worldwide availability and quality of clean water. Development of new materials, membranes, and separation processes are essential to more efficiently create drinking water from salt water (desalination), reclaim clean water from waste and local streams (wastewater and point-of-use treatment), and to recover contaminants of value from water (resource recovery). Engineered nanotechnologies and nanomaterials can be used to uniquely address many emerging challenges in water sustainability due to their high surface area, reactivity, and surface and interfacial phenomena. Empowered by a multi-agency Nanotechnology Signature Initiative released in March 2016, the team will launch an ambitious effort to catalyze several interrelated, game-changing research activities for substantially increasing water availability at lower cost. The effort will position NC State, RTI, and partnering institutions including Duke and UNC-CH as a leading team at the water-nano nexus.
More information about the GRIP and other awardees can be found in the NC State press release and on the GRIP website.
The 2016 Awards for “Best Papers” utilizing the Analytical Instrumentation Facility (AIF) were announced in November and went to Yanqi Ye from the group of Zhen Gu (BME) for a publication in Advanced Materials introducing a microneedle-based cell therapy and Kelly Stano from the group of Philip Bradford (TECS) for work published in Small on nanotube networks. Congratulations to these authors on their excellent work! Previous award winners can be found here.
David Berube attended the Sustainable Nanotechnology Organization (SNO) (http://www.susnano.org/) annual meeting in Orlando, Florida on October 10-12, 2016. He delivered a paper as the first speaker of the first panel on November 10, 2016, and spoke about “Reframing Nanotechnology” where he made a case for marketing science in the upcoming decade to meet the contextual interests of both the new administration and the public at large.